The elements of moral philosophy

These arguments invoked competing ethical principles and led to conflicting conclusions, but they all had one thing in common: It having been likewise found, that there is another directing or controuling Principle, which we call Conscience, or the Moral Sense, which, by a native kind of Authority, judges of Affections and The elements of moral philosophy, pronouncing some just and good, and others unjust and ill; it follows that the Passions, which are mere Impulses, or blind Forces, are Principles inferior and subordinate to this judging Faculty.

The Elements of Moral Philosophy

More generally, we have: This is the first Step then to discover the Duty and Destination of Man, the having analyzed the Principles of which he is composed. Fred may tell us and himself that he was motivated by a moral judgment and concern for the life of the child, but in reality his motives are entirely selfish.

Having thus settled the Subject and End of the Science, the Elements of which we are attempting to discover, and sufficiently distinguished it from all others, it seems proper next to fix the Method of prosecuting it. The reigning Passions of this Period, powerfully prompt him to provide for the Decays of Life; and in it Compassion and Gratitude exert their Influence in urging the Man, now in full Vigour, to requite the Affection and Care of his Parents, by supplying their Wants and alleviating their Infirmities.

In no case, according to Hobbes, do we act out of genuine concern for the welfare of others. Typically, when people feel good about helping others, it is at least partly because they care about those they are helping. By this Power we look back on past Times, and forward into Futurity, gather Experiences, estimate the real and comparative Value of Objects, lay out Schemes, contrive Means to execute them, and settle the whole Order and Oeconomy of Life.

It is not a sound argument because the conclusion does not follow from the premise in other words, it is not valid. Even without carrying out experiments, we are quite confident that most people would not react in the way that the selfish theory predicts.

Analysis, Review, and Chapter Summaries of “Elements of Moral Philosophy” by James Rachels

The Theory of Natural Law 4. For example, suppose that Fred runs into his neighbors burning house to save a child trapped there.

Bright Objects and striking Sounds are beheld and heard with a sort of Commotion and Edition: But genocide could not be morally right relative to any society.

This is the collection of moral standards that are justified in a particular society, regardless of whether that society actually accepts them.

Problem 1 The argument confuses wanting with willing. The Method Moral Philosophy has this in common with Natural Philosophy, that it appeals to Nature or Fact; depends on Observation, and builds its Reasonings on plain uncontroverted Experiments, or upon the fullest Induction of Particulars of which the Subject will admit.

The more Objects the calm Affections take in, and the worthier these are, their Dignity rises in proportion, and with Edition: We esteem them as Marks of an ingenuous Mind, and cannot help thinking the Character in which they are wanting, remarkably stupid, and in some degree immoral.

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Any observer of our culture would know that this is the kind of morality that we would produce.James Rachels’ The Elements of Moral Philosophy Lecture notes by Dan Gaskill.

Chapter 2: Cultural Relativism In the last chapter, we examined a variety of arguments in support of different positions on various ethical matters of life and death. These arguments invoked competing ethical principles and led to conflicting conclusions, but they all had.

We’re committed to providing you with high-value course solutions backed by great service and a team that cares about your success. out of 5 stars - The Elements of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels (, Pape. STUART RACHELS is Associate Professor of Philosophy at the University of Alabama.

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He has revised several of James Rachels’ books, including Problems from Philosophy (second edition, ) and The Right Thing to Do (fifth edition, ), which is the companion anthology to this book. The Elements of Moral Philosophy, by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels, is an ethics textbook.

It explains a number of moral theories and topics, including cultural relativism, subjectivism, divine command theory, ethical egoism, social contract theory, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, and deontology/5(K). The Elements of Moral Philosophy, by James Rachels and Stuart Rachels, is an ethics textbook.

It explains a number of moral theories and topics, including cultural relativism, subjectivism, divine command theory, ethical egoism, social contract theory, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, and mint-body.com: Philosophy.

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The elements of moral philosophy
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