Polivy and Herman based this calculation on the estimate that from 60 to 70 percent of obese people were not obese in childhood. In their thorough study of the causes of relapse, Marlatt and Gordon found heroin addicts rarely reported postaddiction withdrawal to be the reason they relapsed. However, these kinds of alcoholics showed a greater tendency to outgrow alcoholism by moderating their drinking Goodwin et al.
Within this framework, Hodgson et al. According to Carl Rogers and other leading figures in this movement, people are rational beings, able to make their own choices, and are motivated toward a state of fulfilment.
These are quite complex and far from fully understood.
The form in which a drug is used, however, may also create barriers to use. There is a more basic objection yet to the alcohol dependence concept. These theories illustrate mainly the temptation to believe that compelling motivations must have a biological source and the desire to mechanize human differences, imperfections, and mysteries.
Studies in the last 15 years have shown that Describe and evaluate one neurobiological and in concentrations that produce behavioral effects affects the function of several membrane receptors which regulate the flow of ions through other membrane molecules that serve as ion channels ligand-gated ion channels.
One proposal to account for the feverish pursuit of drugs and other human involvements has been that these experiences bring in ordinate pleasure, or euphoria. Do such drinkers simply choose to drink at unhealthy levels and to experience the extreme negative consequences of drinking that, after years, may lead to alcoholism Vaillant ?
Nonetheless, neuroscientists put forward biological theories of just this degree of universality. Solomon uses the opponent-process model to explain why some lovers cannot tolerate the briefest of partings. In order to deal with this problem the patient has used ego-defence mechanisms, such as repression or denial.
Controlling for such large ethnicity effects would surely reduce the 2 to 1 ratio for subjects with alcoholic relatives compared to those without in alcoholism substantially even as other potential environmental factors that lead to alcoholism besides ethnicity would still remain to be controlled for.
Its assumptions were that behaviour is primarily the result of the environment rather then genetics or instincts and so the behaviourists reject the view that abnormal behaviour has a biological basis. The Requirements of a Successful Theory of Addiction A successful addiction model must synthesize pharmacological, experiential, cultural, situational, and personality components in a fluid and seamless description of addictive motivation.
The idea that addictive drugs may commandeer key motivational circuits in the brain should also help researchers, physicians, and others to understand some of the otherwise inexplicable behavior of addicted people, who continue to use drugs either openly or surreptitiously despite, in many cases, tremendously negative personal and social consequences.
All these data point out that the unconditioned stimulus actual drug use is not sufficient provocation for a return to addiction. These changes frequently result, however, from self-initiated attempts to escape the addiction and other life problems. These approaches developed in response to the clearcut finding that very few of those exposed to a drug, even over extended periods, came to rely on it as a life-organizing principle.
All these theorists have indicated that their results are preliminary and require replication, particularly through prospective studies of people who become alcoholics.
In the same breath, it attempts to replace the disease theory whose defects are more broadly agreed upon in Great Britain than in the United States while rescuing important disease notions see critique by Shaw Adaptation Theories Social Learning and Adaptation Conventional conditioning models cannot make sense of drug behavior because they circumvent the psychological, environmental, and social nexus of which drug use is a part.
However, his model left open the question of the source of this insensitivity to somatic cues, suggesting the probability that this was an inherited trait. Yet as Room Theoretical developments based on these investigations have focused on the psychodynamics of drug reliance.
Hard as it is for patients with coronary artery disease to comply with treatment it is even harder for addicted Page 49 Share Cite Suggested Citation: Alcohol Dependence As narcotic addiction theorists have been forced by the recognition of individual variations in addiction to postulate innate neurochemical differences among people, alcoholism specialists have increasingly put forward the claim that alcohol problems are simply a function of excessive drinking.
Vaillant did find that subjects with alcoholic relatives they did not live with were twice as likely to become alcoholic as subjects who had no alcoholic relatives at all.
Outline and evaluate one psychological theory of the functions of dreaming. Many adult problems are reflections of these earlier conflicts, particularly those stemming from infancy and early childhood such as the Oedipus conflict.
In neurobiological models of dreaming, based on the brains psychological activity during REM sleep, the interpretation of human imagery is secondary to explaining the underlying cognitive function of REM sleep. Addicts do not in fact indicate a chronic, habitual need for narcotics.
Proposing genetic mechanisms in alcoholism on the basis of concordance rates does not provide a model of addiction. Heroin addicts have not yet been demonstrated to show unusual levels of endorphins. The variation in behavior that is left unaccounted for in the most optimistic of these models is such as to discount the potential gain from the pursuit of as yet unestablished links between genetically inherited reactions to alcohol and alcoholic behavior.
There are also those who modify addictive habits without drastically rearranging their lives. Many of these intrapsychic conflicts involve basic biological instincts, especially sexual ones.Identify, describe and examine neurobiological sciences.
Use the scientific approach to gather and verify knowledge. Evaluate the significance, quality and veracity of information gathered via experiment and literature and apply them effectively.
Substance Abuse study guide by all includes 33 questions covering vocabulary, terms and more. Describe the neurobiological process that occurs in the brain in which a chemical substance of abuse enters the body.
Include in your description neurotransmitters that enhance the progression toward addiction. on one occasion is. This version of the relationship between endorphin production and addiction—like the one suggesting addicts inherit an endorphin deficiency (see above)—does not fit the data reviewed in chapter 1.
Such theories describe drug use in terms of its ability to resolve ego deficiencies or other psychological deficits—brought on, for example. Fundamental neurobiological research as outlined in this chapter, together with findings from clinical and behavioral and social science research (see Chapter 4), are providing researchers with neurobiological answers that offer better ways to understand, prevent, or treat drug addiction.
Free essay on Outline and evaluate 1 neurobiological theory of functions o available totally free at mint-body.com, the largest free essay community. Theories of dreaming are an attempt to explain why we have dreams.
In general, they fall into You need to be able to describe and evaluate two theories, one psychological and one neurobiological. The theories we shall look at (a Neurobiological Theory) .Download